DUTERTE as President is emerging as a historic break from our past. He is by attitude, maybe even class-origins, and pronouncements, a drastic departure from his predecessors.
There had been Presidents who came from the lower-middle classes (Ramon Magsaysay and Diosdado Macapagal) but who never really challenged the ruling class by their pronouncements and actions. President Estrada pretended to be for the masses, but turned out to be the best example of our lumpenproletariat politicos.
The past President BS Aquino 3rd was inarguably the last (hopefully) representative, of the landlord elite, whom history will judge as one who had been obsessed with, and had done everything — including assaulting the Supreme Court itself and removing its chief justice — to preserve his clan’s Hacienda Luisita, the epitome of that vanishing class’ means of wealth.
Duterte is nearly Aquino’s antithesis, from the middle class, yes, but hardly living in the ensconced world of the elite, which could explain his derision of the elite and the Philippine oligarchy.
Duterte recently demonstrated his disdain for the oligarchy when he revealed that ABS-CBN Chairman Eugenio “Gabby” Lopez 3rd had tried to bribe him, to help its subsidiary Sky Cable enter the Davao City market. He hasn’t denied reports that he replied to the main executive of that public-utility Indonesian conglomerate: “Simply recall that you are just a puppet of the foreign-based Salim Group, while I am the chosen President of the Republic of the Philippines!”
The new President is also appearing to be an iconoclast, to use that word in the broader sense of a person ruthlessly upending traditions and institutions, cherished by certain sections of society. He vociferously criticized the Catholic Church for “hypocrisy” when it censured his campaign statements that showed his apparent disregard for human life, even if these are suspected criminals, in his anti-crime campaign.
Both traits of a President – an anti-oligarch stance and an iconoclasm – are what this nation needs, so damaged as it has been by the ruling-class elite and by medieval beliefs the Church has irresponsibly allowed to prosper. But these are not enough.
I hope that he evolves from his iconoclasm and his simple, folksy disdain for the oligarchy, as well as from his commonsensical priorities of combating crime and the illegal drug trade into a leader with a more comprehensive understanding of what ails the Philippines.
He indicated in his inaugural speech yesterday that corruption, crime and illegal-drugs don’t make up the root of our national quagmire. He said these arise only from a more basic problem: The lack of respect for government and its institutions.
Why the lack?
This is correct, yet it raises another question: Why is there such a lack of respect for government?
I submit that there are three reasons:
First, the government has become mostly a tool of the elite, even foreign magnates, exemplified by the fact that an Indonesian-owned, Hong Kong-based company and a Singaporean firm have been allowed to gain control over such strategic public utilities as telecom and power distribution, as I have exposed in several articles on PLDT, Globe and Meralco — in violation of our basic law, the Constitution. This was possible only because of what political scientists call “regulatory capture,” or the elite’s capability to put regulatory bodies under their control. Few even know who heads the National Telecommunications Commission, with whom the telcos seem to be happy. Why are they?
A part of government that is not a tool of the elite, on the other hand, has become a moneymaking machine for a political-bureaucratic subclass, which the Left erroneously has labeled “bureaucrat-capitalism.” Most mayors, congressmen, and senators spend a lot of money, perhaps partly to feed their egos, but also to tap into the bureaucracy’s money-generating machine. We know this phenomenon simply as corruption.
Second, land, capital, and state-of-the-art educational facilities have been unequally distributed, with the elite having almost a monopoly of these. To understand how important they are, know that they are simply “assets” in different forms, and those who own the assets, therefore, get most of the resulting output — they get richer and richer.
We have to find ways to drastically change our grossly inequitable distribution of assets through such means as a radical change in our tax system (the path taken by Scandinavian countries for income distribution), an earthshaking change in the banking system to provide small entrepreneurs access to capital, or a massive scholarship program for a huge sector of the poor to allow them to get not just any education but the best education possible.
And third, Filipinos have lost their sense that all of us are in the same boat called the nation-state, and that our fates are intertwined because we are all in this boat.
We call this understanding, nationalism, which not a few young Filipinos even mock now as “xenophobia.” It has become even chic for many young Filipinos to see themselves as “global citizens,” which is an oxymoron really, as being a citizen presupposes a nation-state of which one is a member.
There are many reasons for such decline in nationalism, the most important of which is that unlike the elites of Thailand, China, or Singapore, our elites are “global” people, living in the US or Spain or even China now, and seeing the Philippines really only as a market or a production site or as a country they enjoy criticizing from their suburban homes in California. They no longer really see – as elites elsewhere do – that their fates are bound with the people of this country.
Whether we like it or not, it is really the economic elite in any nation that has the resources to mold its people’s sense of nationalism. If they don’t, it is an uphill struggle by the middle-class, or its intellectuals to develop their people’s nationalism.
As above, as it turned out, so below. The OFW phenomenon has made a big part of our lower-middle class really nationless. Blaming Marcos, and then disappointed that a post-Marcos era changed nothing, has resulted in a massive brain and talent drain from the country, including even its best journalists.
If the Philippines isn’t’ really their nation, why should they respect its state?
Only when President Duterte starts correcting these three basic problems of our country can we then say that he has moved from being just iconoclastic to being a revolutionary.
I entered adulthood by joining a movement that professed to be revolutionary, that it would solve these root problems of our country, by overthrowing the bourgeois form of government. That movement failed miserably, with its leaders, ironically, even becoming citizens or permanent residents of the world’s most advanced capitalist nations they had been condemning.
I hope I see in my lifetime our country moving toward solving these three basic problems.
At least this nation-state’s symbol, the flag, yesterday appeared pinned on the chest of the new President, Duterte. In contrast, in the past six years, the symbol pinned on Aquino’s chest till the day he left the Palace, has been a Yellow Ribbon, the symbol not of this nation but of his clan and its fanatic followers.
This Post Has 45 Comments
Sir Tiglao, we owe you so much for enlightening and confirming what many Pinoys have been observe for a long, long time but wish too that you can have a column (translated in vernacular) in any well-read tabloid. Pls caution, too, Pres. Duterte of naming an shaming any names (Ouch! Yung mga hampas-lupa at patay-guton lang pwede) in public or else he might end as any of PQuirino (golden orinola), PMagsaysay (crashlanding?), PMarcos (magnanakaw kaya yumaman,human rights violator, etc.[so why BBM has the least election expenses and cheated?]), or PErap, and PGMA (both corrupt because they did not agree sa gusto ng mga Yellows?)
Finally, an article that I am looking for in a media.
Pointing fingers must be eliminated…
We move on… we do the job … we get things done … and relax after a long day. Less talk more action is much better…
Besides…. we need to spend quality time with family as it is the backbone of our strong Nation…
The yellow ribbon on the chest of penoy represent the loonies of the make believe world which he exemplify!
Simplify government processes, Speedup transaction times and reduce redtape, enable the have-nots to gain access to free skills training education, low interest financing and tax holidays/incentives on new businesses, removing profiteers from public utilities and establish law and order. Do this and the Philippines will be great again!
Its great to have a president that honors our flag.. indeed,we filipino young and old should help our president in his aim to free the nation from corruptions,drugs and other matters that make our country put into shame in the past years. Lets follow our government and lend a helping hand. Lets move with the blessing of God. Hail our new president because we know that he loves the philippine very
I hope to God, things has change for the better. We have waited so long. Why do millions go to foreign climes if things are well. You would be lucky if you get 0ne third of the OFW return to the Philippines. I have a nephew both of them nurses in England. They had a chance to move to Australia, and they are there currently.
Used properly the earnings might improve the education of those left behind.In my
Mindoro town, the biggest houses are thouse built by Overseas Workers.
Let’s not be perfectionist because their is no such. Marcoses maybe friends with duterte so what. The main thing is if duterte keeps his promise and turn the country to 1st world country then he done his job and promise. He will be in the history books as the revolutionary president because his methods are revolutionary and unorthodox. This kind of leaders the country needs and not those traditionnal ceremonial politucally correct crooks we have in past and present
I hope the youth are reading this kind of article, especially the sons and daughters of wealthy clans. This one earned my respect for Mr. Tiglao.
If I remember right, President Marcos also has the Philippine flag as a symbol of his “revolution.” I hope and pray that the Philippine flag of President Duterte is not just a ploy to re-write Philippine history.
We the people as a nation must change our mindset and President Duterte will motivate all of us to love our country. The same as the previous writer, I left our country to go to a greener pasture. When I came back after 26 years, there was no change maybe a little bit better. In 1984 there is no job available. Now there are call centers and food chains work force for undergraduates. When I came back, that it when I felt that I love this country. This is we’re I was born. Little by little, I am helping the poor. Providing uniforms to poor students. Is this enough, heck no, but this is the start. Let us all chip in we OFWs that is retiring and spent our days in our motherland.
The picture tells a thousand words. Pres. Rody shows love of country with his Phil. flag
Pres. BS shows he is a degenerate and disdainful of our flag. He speaks of his “bosses” the Filipino people like mantra, but in his mind we are suckers born every minute of his misrule.
Yonkers, New York
01 July 2016
There is a lot of what’s right in this Analysis by former diplomat Rigoberto Tiglao of the fundamental structural problems which have bedevilled the country since “independence” in 1946.
Hopefully, newly-inaugurated President Rodrigo Duterte, given the obvious strength of his personality and what he has vowed to do, mainly to deal aggressively with rampant criminality and corruption, he will prove a success where all of his predecessors have failed–and failed miserably.
My sense, however, is that even assuming that he will prove to be a smashing success at dealing with rampant criminality and corruption, he would still fall far short of putting the country on a sure, solid and inclusive and enduring path to progress and sustainable development [WWRostow] as achieved by its neighbors Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea and Singapore who have gained the laudatory reputation as “Asian economic tigers” while, in contrast, the Philippines has gained the pejorative distinction as “The sick man of Asia.”
President Duterte must know that for over-60 years now, the Philippines has effectively been held in the vise-like grip of a PLUTOCRATIC-POLITICO-CLERICO CONSPIRACY, whose overarching Agenda is to perpetuate itself in wealth and power, the better manipulate and exploit the Filipino people.
If President Duterte makes good on his vow to set up a REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT from the very start, there is a very good chance that he will be able to break this stranglehold of the Conspiracy. That is the sine qua non for him to introduce the drastic, radical and revolutionary societal changes which the country needs to get out of the morass into which it has fallen all these years.
d oligarchs are afraid of the likes of duterte and marcos.
d oligarchs are here to exploit our very diligent and faithful kababayan as workers of their offices, bahay, resort etc; , and our abundant natural resources. they have houses in the US etc. they are not even citizens– or dual if you may just so they can take advantage of the privilges and right of citizenship. but they can leave the Phil anytime and leave us indeed holding the bag
they do not really love our country.
PERO BAKIT SI GINA LOPEZ ang nilagay nyang DENR sec ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
Nationalism should be in the heart of every citizen. Our flag should be pinned in everyday clothes we wear on our chest. Building should display our flag in building, in stead of commercial messages. We should be proud of our flag and display it with honor and dignity every day.
Mr,President…..JUST DO IT !!!!
The current set up of government and oligarchs thinking will not make it happen.
It is either a bloody revolution or a neutron bomb could change the course of our country’s history, not even your column.
DU30 is right, we are on tough, hard and bumpy ride.
salamat sa insights tungkol sa naging dahilan ng ating kaawa-awang kalagayan. kung sa senado ay may “in aid of legislation”, ang inyo pong mga sinabi at ang mga reaction ng inyong mga mambabasay ay “in aid of recovery”. Sana, ang pag-aalis ng mata ng mga pigsa ng lipunan ay magawa nga, as promised, sa loob ng anim na buwan. At ang full recuperation ay mangyari sa anim na taon.
Let us wait & see.Why no marching order to stop jueteng which corrupts PNP and LGU’s. What about his dare that all bank accounts should be opened.
Bank account be opened? eh di payag si duterti niyan,,di nga niya mapabukas at mapakita ang history ng banko niya na una nay ayaw pa niya aminin na sa kanya at banda huli ng sukol a ay umamin na.
We don’t have to wait and see. We ourselves can begin this revolution ourselves, and now! We can start within ourselves with all our hearts. It doesn’t have to be destructive or violent without a drop of blood spilled. However we must be ready to pour our blood, sweat and tears on our soil to protect our country and our people. We must protect our Filipino brothers and sister, parents and children and they protect us. Safeguard our national interest from foreign exploitation using our own brothers and sisters. For all of us who are in pain, let us lick our wounds to let it heal. We are all divided but let us embrace each other. Let us have a fresh start, and now is the best time to begin. We love you Philippines!
His focus is at curbing illegal drugs and corruption (mainly drug related corruption, maybe), within the first 3-6 months.
Besides, jueteng, though also a source of corruption is a lesser evil compared to drugs.
Mr. Ambassador I salute your opinion and agree with you totally, Same as to your aspiration I hope I will wake up one day that our new president will change all to where we all failed. May God Bless you and Good luck.
I have been awaiting the 2nd of a series about MVP and his benefactor the Indonesian magnate in the Wednesday and today’s issue of Manila Times, but for some reason the writer shifted to another topic which probably is more exciting and could erase whatever is left of the first of two series. I hope that there was no exchange in the process of change which the new president have been saying about journalists. I still hope that the writer Amb. Tiglao would come out with the second series. I think that others too are looking forward to that. God save the Philippines.
Columns, as I see them, have to explain important news developments. my Salim series will continue next week.
This article gave me goose-bumps, for it is indeed very true. I ran to the US for 30 yrs to support myself and my son, came back and refused the green card I was offered, to help those who, confronted with the same situation I was put to, could not leave for a better life. I found the Filipino poor exactly as I left them, resigned to their fate, unmotivated, unskilled, uneducated, exploited, unhealthy, increasing in number. Nothing changed for them, so why should they bother. They are tired of empty promises and live hand to mouth – nakakaraos. I hate that term. They deserve better. I pray for Pres. Duterte. May he live and rule to remove the Philippines from being tagged “lesser developed”.
As fellow passenger of this boat, I also would like to see our country moving forward with equal opportunity for all and to have decent lives in our beloved country. Well said Mr. Tiglao keep on educating us through your column.
A speech do not make a presidency. At the very least lets see how Mr. Duterte will direct the first 100 days as this will be indicative of how the entire term will evolve. I was hoping that in saying that the people have lost their respect on government, Mr. Duterte could have mentioned that he would embark on a cultural renewal and moral transformation program. He could have capped his change from without and from within statement with a strong call to transformation. I would love to hear him say and actually define that on his next opportunity to address the nation – the SONA.
How can he call for moral transformation when he himself is morally weak and deficient? People will just laugh at him.
How about you? Are you morally strong and sufficient? Then be a president..If you can’t then shut up don’t show your jaundiced color..you’re already laughed at..
Related to Randy David? Is this a real name or an a.k.a.?
Right on the money!
I agree with you sir Rigoberto. It really break my heart seeing how the Oligarchs and the elites of this Nation trample the Law by bribing the government regulators. How they attack to take control the Prime government assets in cahoots with PSALMS and BOT and now PPP to take over Energy,Telecom,Water,Electricity,and Transportation which must and never under private control because these involve National Economy and Security. It must be honestly manage by competent and extremely Patriotic government officials,whose character is strong and can not be bribe. What we lack really is the Love of country by the Elites and the Oligarchs and is further weakened because it is not emphasize in the educational system and in our universities and Public schools unlike during the Martial Law years! In South Korea, Japan though their Elites and Oligarchs operate global they operates for the sake and love of their Nation. One main reason why the Filipino mind is warp is because of false worship which resulted to cursed in our nation. Compare the nations who are not colonized by Roman Catholic Spain and Portugal with those Nation Colonized by Biblically based Nation of Great Britain and US like South Korea and Northern Luzon.The character of the people are God-fearing. They genuinely seek to implement justice and righteousness which is the Nature of God! We pray and intercede day an night so that God will convict the hearts of the Elites and the Oligarchs and for their eyes to be open to the gospel which is the word of God in order for them to have genuine love of our Nation and compassion to the Filipinos. The government officials must repent from sin of NEPOTISM which resulted to corruption,injustices,biases,favoritism and partisan,conspiracy to cover tax robbery and election fraud! Sin of Nepotism had resulted to our culture of injustice,cheating,lawlessness,perverted moral values,graft and corruption,political crime,political dynasty,weak government institutions! Proverbs 14:34 and 2 Chronicles 7:14. God have mercy and forgive our Nation and heal our land. This we pray in Jesus most powerful name! Thank you for hearing our prayers for your word says that the prayer of the righteous avails much!We are not self righteous but wear your righteousness by Christ Jesus.
I welcome with all my heart and mind the “Rodycal” Alternative which is not just a reform but in fact a revolution for it is founded on rational foundations of human existence. From the stage of coercion or nature being in power, to the stage of liberalism or economics (represented by the oligarchs) being in power, we are now entering the stage of politics where man is the one in power…where the common man will ascend from the age of scarcity to the age of abundance.
Ban the color yellow and the twisted ribbon !
Ano ka kumunista? eh gusto ng tao ng yellow,,sino ka ?
I feel good and proud to be Filipino again seeing the President wearing the Phillipine Flag in his chest! Mabuhay ang Pilipinas!!!
I LOVE THE PHILIPPINE FLAG. ALTHOUGH I AM ALREADY OUT OF THE COUNTRY MY HEART & SPIRIT IS MY MOTHERLAND. UNLIKE THESE PREVIOUS CROOKS IN MALACANANG, THEY NON-PATRIOTIC AND SHOULD NOT LIVE HERE. THEY HAVE THEIR OWN COUNTRY. A COUNTRY NOWHERE, THE YELLOW/JAUNDICE PEOPLE. THE LOVE FOR YELLOW IS SICKENING. I AM HAPPY THAT THEY WERE ALREADY OUT WITH BILLIONS OF LOOT. SEND THEM TO HELL. LET THEIR FAMILY SUFFER WITH UNKNOW UNCURABLE DISEASE.
To minimize graft and corruption, the new President must issue and implement policies and procedures that will make his promise a reality, either by executive order or by instructing Congress (now under his thumb) to pass the necessary laws. Talk is cheap, and all sorts of promises can be made in an inaugural speech. To prove his sincerity, he needs, as they say, to “walk the talk”.
One way of “walking the talk” is to reward whistleblowers who will identify or provide – anonymously by phone or mail -, the names of politicians and bureaucrats suspected of any wrong doing. Many employees in Government know or have an idea of those who are corrupt. But they keep mum or quiet because there is really nothing in it for them. They will only be labeled as “troublemakers” and may even be fired.
The financial reward in exposing “bad apples” will no doubt prove to be an incentive in helping minimize corruption and any wrongdoing. If I recall correctly, there was an IT bank employee in Switzerland who downloaded the names of Americans and others who had engaged in tax evasion or avoidance with the complicity of a Swiss bank (UBS). I believe he was awarded at least two millions dollars after a few years of investigation. But in return, the US collected billions of dollars from the taxes owed by the culprits. The bank also settled with the US Government to pay a significant amount of fine or penalty.
When the Swiss tax avoidance scheme was revealed, the name of Imee Marcos showed up in the list of participants. I thought that Kim Henares of the BIR would have investigated her participation in this scheme. But as usual in the Philippines, nothing happened. I believe PNoy did not even issue any statement about this at the time. Neither did he say anything when the fairly recent “Panama papers” that have been downloaded in the Web – which list the names of possible tax avoiders or evaders – showed the names of the wealthiest residents or citizens of the Philippines, including those of Imee Marcos and her Manotoc sons. The question now is: will the new BIR chief under President Duterte do something about this? Or is he going to ignore this information just like Kim Henares? Even though Duterte has accused the BIR of being corrupt, remember that the Marcoses supported Duterte, and he was very frank in admitting that he has no cabinet position for VP Leni Robredo because he does not want to offend the Marcoses. Query: Will Duterte “walk the talk”?
Sana sinabi mo kay pnoy yan habang pangulo pa siya. Halata ka namang dilaw e.
The more fundamental reason is that the people don’t hold the reins of power, the elites do. Although the people managed to elect one of their own, Duterte’s problem now is how to yank power away from the elites to give to the people, permanently. That requires more imagination than gunning down drug lords. Lets pray the man is up to it.
Not sure why you always have to inject in your articles, that for some bizarre reason, the Marcoses had nothing to do with the state of the Country. It was Marcos who decided to keep the Philippine economy a backwards agricultural economy. He had his chance to put the country forward but he chose not to. What a better way for a dictator to keep its people ignorant and oblivious of the emerging economy and keep them planting rice, coconut, etc. Japan, S. Korea, and recently China were smart enough to move their economies to a relevant industrial/technology type. So the state of the Philippines is a cumulative result of bad choices spearheaded by the great dictator Marcos.
Not true, geothermal energy started and flourished under his regime, and we had a steel industry that would had gone full blast if only we had the power from the Bataan nuclear power plant.
But we all know what happened to those plans after the EDSA revolution (The Brown Out, Dark Ages in RP).
I agree with you. When Marcos took over the presidency, the country was number 2 (second to Japan) economically. In 1986, when he and his family fled to Hawaii, the country was known as the “sick man of Asia”. “Ninakaw ‘nya lahat ang pera ng Pilipinas”. His plunder, greed and corruption was so well-known that the late PM Lee Kwan Yew of Singapore even refused to lend money to the Philippines because he knew that it would never be repaid, and would just be pocketed by Marcos.
Your Comments regarding the Marcos regime is so UNINFORMED considering you brought up our successful neighbor’s – Japan ( Their Zaibatsu and other business elite families -http://priceonomics.com/why-are-so-many-of-the-worlds-oldest-businesses-in/), south korea (once a colony of Japan, rebuilt by S. Korea’s rich families – Chaebol & their loyal citizens shown donating family gold to bail their ailing countries’ finances – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/analysis/47496.stm). Both countries have a very deep seated self sufficient disciplined history- Japan with its shogun , SKorea with it’s han culture ). China recently evolved from it’s closed communist economy to state capitalism ONLY after the fall of their biggest ally and trade partner – USSR. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/soviet_end_01.shtml.
China too is a proud nationalist country.
All countries you previously mentioned WERE NOT REBUILT BY THEIR GOVERMENT BUT RATHER THEIR OWN BUSINESS ELITE FAMILIES AND CITIZENS.
THEIR GOVERMENT JUST PROVIDED A STABLE SAFE COUNTRY FOR THEM TO INVEST IN and GROW.
During the Marcos regime,.
PH families are still intact (very few or no OFWs), culture was preserved despite presence of colonizers (US bases and religion), education was high shown by the caliber of professionals working abroad – doctors, lawyers, nurses vs the current domestic workers flooding HK and Singapore.
PH by nature is a very rich agriculture country and enriched by the Marcos through science i.e., Los Banos IRRI http://www.manilatimes.net/marcos-green-revolution/246377/.
The economic problems under the Marcos rule was endemic due to many problems internal to PH that he INHERITED – class wars, religious wars, big brother colonized mentality, undisciplined dependency problem caused by collectivism vs, individual self help, riots and later terrorism causing PH to be under Martial Law.
Business investments plummeted due to lack of confidence normal when insurgency is rampart , i.e., – Egypt , IRAQ, LIBYA, SYRIA to name a few whose economies are still suffering?
Our business elites are not invested due to lack of confidence causing no jobs that led to PH’s middle class brain drain.
To sum, dumping all PH failures due to one presidency (The Marcos ) is ludicrous and insane!
Despite the normalcy that Martial Law achieved compared to our other unfortunate neighbors – Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar to name a few,
one cannot eliminate PH history /timeline – its problems the Marcos have inherited from its prior leaders and colonizers.
To do so is unfair to all Filipinos trying to learn from its past and improve one’s future. I am a PH Martial Law Baby Boomer and informed and lived its days.
My hope is that Duterte would provide the safe stable country our successful neighbors enjoyed for PH citizens to trust their future lives and investments back to their home country. To do so would provide us a better playing field to compete with said successful capitalist neighbors – Japan, South Korea and lately – LKY’s Singapore.
Binata na ako ng mag Martial Law at taga manila ako,,napakaganda ng Manila noong araw na walang Martial Law,,tinagurian nga ng Newsweek at na feature pa ang avenida na “A city without a Night” na parang sa las vegas ang mga moving lights and advertisement na naglalakihan at para na rin sa new york,,nong mag martial, unti unti bumagsak ang ating ekonomiya…tanga pa ang mga Filipino noon at takot at kakaunti ang popolasyun…Tagal siya naupo halos 20 years,, ni hindi man lang niya nagawa na parang singapore o thailand ang pilipinas,bagkus ay 28 billion na utang ang iniwan ni marcos na naka apekto sa sumunod na umupo..Construction na walang biddding dahil siya at si imelda lang ang taga pirma…maraming mangmang pa kung ano ginawa ni marcos nong martial law,,di siya naging katulad ni lee kuan yeww na naging tapat ang pagpapaunlad,,20 years? ano nangyari? wala..basta may marcos ,,magulo ang bansa.maniwala kayo…parang kung saan may M, may terorista.
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